Hamidulin A.M. Philosophy of History of N.A. Berdyaev: The Existential End of History or an Apocalipsis Interiorized

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/lp.jvolsu.2020.1.4
Artem M. Khamidulin
Candidate of Sciences (Theology), Master of Vocational Training, Senior Lecturer, Department of Bible Studies, Theology and Philosophy, Nizhny Novgorod Theological Seminary
Pokhvalinsky Syezd, 5, 603001 Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation

Graduate Student, Department of Philosophy and Theology, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University (University of Minin)

Ulyanova St, 1, 603005 Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation
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Abstract. The article analyzes the philosophy of history of N. A. Berdyaev. The starting point of the article is the thesis about the relationship between the problematics of time and historical science. It is noted that for Berdyaev, the philosophy of time is one of the main themes of his philosophy of history. Attention is drawn to the feeling of dissatisfaction experienced by Berdyaev with the fluidity and mobility of time. The perception of the philosopher of time as solicitude and, to a large extent, as an evil or a disease that must be overcome is explicated. The reality of the past and future times equal to the present is revealed. The author demonstrates the bliss inspired by actual experience and philosophy of time. Concept of psychological time of Augustine, which justifies the reality of the past, present and future. Teaching about the instantaneity of the present as a point of interaction between time (historical and cosmic) and eternity (celestial time) of Berdyaev is considered. The possibility of experiencing this kind of moment is considered by Berdyaev on the basis of the existential dimension of time that flows in the depths of the human spirit. The author notes the influence of the teaching about the moment by Danish philosopher Sшren Kierkegaard on Berdyaev. A parallel is drawn between teaching on the meaning of the moment by Berdyaev and the concept of "kairos" of German theologian Paul Tillich. The article analyzes eschatology of Berdyaev, which determines his belonging to the traditions of the Russian religious philosophy of history. Two possible ways to overcome time are revealed: in an instant, i.e. repeatedly during human life, and as a result of the total end of history, which, according to Berdyaev, is also to a large extent a phenomenon of the existential sphere of being. According to Berdyaev, this kind of exit from time gives the opportunity to learn the meaning of history, on the one hand, and to free oneself from the enslaving power of time, on the other. It is concluded that Berdyaev understood the end of history existentially as a special spiritual experience that allows us to overcome time and look at history in terms of eternity.
Key words: philosophy of history, Berdyaev, man, existence, the end of history, Eschaton, Apocalypse, spiritual experience.

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