Buynyakova I.S. Philosophical and Ethical Issues of Biotechnological “Human Enhancement”


Inna S. Buynyakova

Postgraduate Student, Department of Philosophy and Theology,

Belgorod State National Research University

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Pobedy St., 85, 308015 Belgorod, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article discusses the philosophical and ethical aspects of biotechnological “human enhancement” as well as risks associated with their implementation. In modern conditions of accelerating scientific and technical progress and the development of nano-, bio-, information, cognitive, socio-humanitarian (NBICS) technology   an issue of the possibility of using these technologies of “human enhancement” or even drastic changes of the person naturaly arises. Great attention is paid to the transhumanistic movement initiating and supporting the idea of the need of “human enhancement” through breakthrough NBICS technologies. The author shows that nowadays there is no unified approach to the definition of “enhancement”. The complex bioethical problem of the formulation of the concepts of “health”, “normality/deviation”. The article also represents opposing positions of both foreign and domestic scholars and public figures debating negative and positive aspects of “human enhancement” by radical genetic enhancement of a person germ line. The article touches upon human boundaries and potential post-human being defined as Posthuman. Great attention is paid to the works of L. Cass and F. Fukuyama who stand on the positions of existence of a fixed human nature distinguishing it from the potential post-human creatures. Concepts of human nature by M. Bessa are considered. The problems of humanitarian expertise of biotechnological enhancement projects are determined. The problem is focused upon prediction and comprehensive assessment of post-human transformations. The analysis of the impact of biotechnological enhancement is in the competence of the natural sciences, however, the issue of the anthropological assessment of the possible consequences requires a philosophical analysis.

Key words: transhumanism, Posthuman, NBICS technologies, “enhancement” of human biotechnology projects.

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Philosophical and Ethical Issues of Biotechnological “Human Enhancement” by Buynyakova I.S. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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